Style Guide

This document describes the preferred format of paper submissions. A style sample is also provided.


For all content, except artworks, the language of publication is English. There are no language restrictions on artworks featured in the gallery section. Crossings do not generally provide for translation of papers in other languages but exceptions are made from time to time. We are always happy to accept papers from non-native speakers and can sometimes assist in establishing contact to suitable translators.


For style issues not covered below, please consult Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 1996 or The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. Chicago; University of Chicago Press, 1993.


The paper title and author's name should appear at the top of the first page.



In general, follow guidelines for numbers in the Chicago Manual of Style. Specific decades or centuries should be spelled out and lowercase, unless both century and decade is given. A century used as an adjective to modify a noun should be hyphenated.

the sixtiesthe 1960s
the seventeenth centuryseventeenth-century architecture
the twenty-first centurytwenty-first-century media

Content notes

Content notes (as opposed to source references) qualify or enhance the textual discussion or make acknowledgements. They should be used sparingly. Content notes should be referenced clearly using asterisks (*) or daggers (†).

Note 1: *Note 4: †
Note 2: **Note 5: ††
Note 3: ***Note 6: †††

Notes should appear at the end of the paper, before the references. See the style sample for examples of notes.


Sources consulted should appear at the end of the paper in an alphabetised, numbered reference list. Source references for quotations and paraphrases should be documented at relevant points in the text, preferably at the end of a sentence unless clarity requires that they be placed directly after a specific reference in the middle of a sentence. Place reference information within square brackets, citing the number of the source as it appears in the reference list and the relevant page numbers. Use abbreviations p. (sing.) or pp. (pl.) when citing page numbers. See the style sample for more examples.

Parenthetical Reference:
'The significance of virtual reality . . . is that it directly confronts the question: what is reality?' [9, p.37].
Reference list:
Woolley, Benjamin. Virtual Worlds: A Journey in Hype and Hyperreality. London: Penguin, 1992.

Data Formats

TypePreferred formats
TextRTF (Rich Text Format) or plain text
FiguresPostScript (As soon as Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) software becomes widely available, SVG will become the preferred format.)
VideoQuicktime or MPEG

For artworks, submissions in other formats, such as Shockwave or Flash, are also accepted.

Supplementary Information

When submitting a paper, please provide an abstract of no more than 100 words and a brief biography of approximately fifty words. Include URLs for any relevant web sites and an email address if you wish readers to be able to contact you directly.

If a work referred to in the paper is available online, please supply the relevant URL. Likewise, please supply URLs for any useful web sites of persons or organisations discussed.


Before publication, papers will be marked up in XML by Crossings staff and then translated to XHTML 1.0 for online publication. As web standards evolve, XHTML 1.0 will be replaced with other markups, but the original XML markup will remain the same.

At the moment, authors are requested to submit papers without HTML or XML markup. In the future, the Crossings Paper DTD will be made available to authors who wish to mark up their own papers in XML.

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